Cancer gytranjcsusgg 1 110R6pp 17, 2011 35 pagcs African Culture The continent of Africa is a vast one and it contains as many as 53 countries. Although essentially similar these countries in Africa have some subtle differences in their culture. African Tribes: There are a number of African tribes in the African continent The Afar tribes are found in Ethiopia, Djibouti and Somalia. The Anlo-Ewe tribes were once inhabitants of Notsie, from where they migrated in 1474 and are currently found in the southeastern areas of Republic of Ghana.

The Amhara tribes are found in Ethiopia, Ashanti tribes in central Ghana, gakongo ribes along the Atlantic coast and the Bambara tribes are located in Mali. The Bemba tribes are located in Zambia, the Berber tribes in Morocco, Al tribes are found in w tribes are located in t located in Zambia, VI in southeastern Mali PACE 1 or35 Kala gypt. The Bobo Mali. The Bushmen Chewa tribes are e Dogon tribes live other tribes found in Africa are the Fang tribe, Fon, Fulani, Ibos, Kikuyu, Maasai, Mandinka, Pygmies, Samburu, Senufo, Tuareg, Wolof, Yoruba and zulu.

African Arts: African art has certain themes that are repeated throughout all the art forms, be it painting, pottery or any other andicrafts. Some of the subjects that are commonly portrayed are couples, the depiction of woman and a child, a male with a wild animal or the portrayal of an outsider. According to African culture, the depiction of the cou Swlpe to vlew next page couples represents ancestors or even community founders. Often there IS also depiction of twins. However the representation of the couple is rarely the kind to show sexual intimacy or loves, more often it depicts strength and honor.

The portrayal of the woman and her child represents mother earth and the child represents the people living on the earth. The portrayal ofthe male with the weapon or with a horse is usually representing the power or status conferred upon that mari. Finally the portrayal of the stranger represents a foreigner or an outsider. In ancient African culture, the stranger was not welcome and there always existed a gap between the stranger and the African people in the pictures. In the African culture, the songs are used as a mode of communication. Melodies in Afncan music are organized within a scale of four, five, Six or seven tones.

Common musical instruments used in African music are drums, slit gongs, ouble-bells, rattles, harps, musical hows, xylophone, flutes and trumpets. Drums are particularly popular which explains the use of several different types of drums like – tama talking drums, bougarabou, djembe, water drums and the ngoma drums. African Languages: There are close to 2000 languages spoken throughout Africa. All these languages can be broadly categorized into four major categories, which are Afro-Asiatic languages, Nilo- Saharan languages, Niger-Congo languages and the Khoisan languages.

Some of the Nilo-Saharan languages are Kanuri, Songhay, Nubian, and the Nilotic family languages, which include Luo, Dinka, and Maasai. The Niger-Congo languages 2 5 the Nilotic family languages, which include Luo, Dinka, and Maasai. The Niger-Congo languages include the Bantu and Niger- Kordofanian language families. The Khoisan language family includes around thirty languages categorized into five Khoisan families. In addition to these above-mentioned languages, there are also certain non-African languages as well as a large number of sign languages.

Modern Chinese Culture Facts It is very difficult to pin-point the exact cultural changes which took place in China. There were many forces that influenced he social life in China. Therefore, an exhaustive study would be requlred to put a proper picture of modern Chinese culture. Let us pick out some important details through this write up. Cultural Revolution The beginning of Cultural Revolution (1966) saw an end to the traditional practices, belief systems and thought processes of Old China. The ideology propagated by Mao Zedong had a deep impact on the Chinese society.

The art movement was suppressed and people were not allowed to express themselves freely. Zedong tried to pant Chlna in red. Literature In the early part of 20th century, vernacular prose started eplacing the literary writing. This change triggered a chain reaction of a series of changes. Poetry, fiction and many other forms ofliterature flourished in China. The literature of post- Mao period presented before readers, the misery and pain experienced by masses during the Cultural revolution. The side- effects of Cultural revolution were discussed in this literature.

The poetry, articles and novels that came up in post-Mao p 35 revolution were discussed in this literature. The poetry, articles and novels that came up in post-Mao period are also known as literature of the wounded. It was in this period that people’s interest in foreign literary works grew. Modern Chinese Music The 80s decade brought a lease of life for Chinese music which was greatly suppressed during the earlier period of Cultural revolution. The revival of music in China after the 80s decade saw musicians touring foreign countries. Western musicians also toured China.

Western music became popular in China. Calligraphy and painting The modern history of painting and calligraphy can be traced back to the period when people Republic of China was formed. It was during this period that Western painting techniques were ntroduced to China; oil painting was one of these. The trend of mass-produced paintings followed till the beginning of Cultural revolution. During the Cultural Revolution, arts like painting and calligraphy suffered a lot with art schools being closed down. The number of exhibitions too dropped considerably.

Cinema The Chínese artists became familiar with motion pictures in the early part of 20th century. Popularity of cinema grew thereafter. It was however, in the period of Cultural Revolution that cinema, just like other forms got suppressed. The period immediately after the Cultural Revolution saw some growth. Later on, the film industry faced losses owing to competition from other entertainment media. Today’s China is a prosperous nation which has made progress in military and economic fronts. The age-old per 4 35 prosperous nation which has made progress in military and economic fronts.

The age-old perceptions about the Chinese culture and society are fast changing. Interaction between the Chinese and people from other countries on a nse. It is one of the important reasons behind China undergoing a fast change. It has been observed that culture of a particular region flourishes after it is nurtured by economic growth. A prosperous society takes greater interest in literature, music and different art forms. By this logic, we should wait and watch for some great literary works from Chinese authors, expect a few Nobel laureates and also a new ‘Cultural Revolution’ in the times to come.

Japanese Culture The Japanese culture encompasses sublime beauty and is so vast that each realm can be written about in several different pieces. Here however, we have made an attempt to provide to you a glimpse ofthe different aspects of this vast culture. Traditional Japanese Clothing Almost everyone is familiar with the traditional Japanese clothing tem, i. e. the kimono. In the past kimono was a blanket term used to define all types of clothing. However, its contemporary definition is that of a long garment worn by men, women, and children. In fact, the types of kimonos worn Vary based on occasion, marital status, and even the season.

Here’s a look into three types of kimonos worn by Japanese women. • Tomesode: This is the kimono of a married women and can be distinguished by the fact that its patterns are not prominent above the waistline. • Furisode: This is the kimono belonging to unmarried s 5 prominent above the waistline. ?? Furisode: This is the kimono belonging to unmarried women and is distinguished by its extremely long sleeves. Such kimonos are worn by unmarried girls only on very formal occaslons to indicate that they are of age and available for marriage. ?? Uchikake: The uchikake is a Special kimono worn by Japanese brides. It is made of silk and is much longer than the regular kimono. This is a characteristic trait of the bridal kimono and just like in the western culture where there are designated bridesmaids to carry the train of the bride, there are assistants required to help the bride walk in the uchikake. Apart from these specific kimonos, it is interesting to note that the patterns of kimonos Vary based on the prevalent season. Those in fall are less brighter than those of spring, while those of winter are made in heavier fabrics such as flannel.

A popular type of kimono worn in summer is known as yukata, made of Cotton. It is a casual kimono worn at most summer events in Japan Kimonos worn by men and women can be differentiated by the colors they wear. Men wear lighter, neutral colors while women wear brighter colors and prints. One more element that sets these kimonos apart is the obi, a sash worn around the kimono at he waist. The obi worn by men is thin while that worn by women is much wider. In today’s day and time, kimonos are not worn regularly, but primarily on special occasions. However, men and women do wear kimonos while entertaining guests at home.

Greek Culture Greece is a country of diverse cultures. The Greek War of Independence gave an 6 5 Independence gave an identity to the Greek culture. Know all about Greek culture. «Culture is the sum of all the forms of art, of love, and ofthought, which, in the course of centuries, have enabled man to be less enslaved. i’ – Andre Malraux. Greek Culture is one of the oldest cultures. It has evolved over thousands of years. It finds its roots in the Mycenaean and Minoan civilizations. The Roman, the Byzantine and the Ottoman empires have had a major influence on the culture of Greece.

Greeks are proud oftheir culture and look at their culture as being a representation of their nationality and ethnicity. Their art, religion, dance, music and the Greek cuisine compose the rich culture of Greece. The Greek diet is characterized by a variety of foods and wine. Greek Art Remains of ancient Greek architecture exist in the form of documentations. The Greek architecture of today follows modern trends. Their work was appreciated for many years_ Lacking proper preservation, the paintings vanished after 4th century A. D. Many of the ancient Greek buildings have been destroyed due to wars and earthquakes.

Parthenon is an ancient temple built for the Greek Goddess Athena, who is believed to protect Greece. The Parthenon is a very important suruiving temple of Greece. The Greeks used pottery in their daily lives. Metal vessels made by the Greeks laid the foundation of bronze working technique. The Greek coins of today derive their patterns from those of the ncient times. Panel and Wall paintings were amon today derive their patterns from those of the ancient times. Panel and Wall paintings were among the noted expressions of art by the Greeks. Greek sculptures often portrayed their Gods and Goddesses.

Greek art has inspired artists of many countries around the world. Greek Religion A large population of Greece is composed of Orthodox Christians. The rest of it constitutes Muslims, Roman Catholics and the Jews. Ancient Greeks were very religious people. They worshiped Gods as forms of strength and beauty. Mostly, the Greeks worshiped he gigantic ivory and gold statue of Zeus at Olympia. (Zeus is the King of the Gods, the Ruler of Mount Olympus and the God of the Sky and Thunder. ) They also worshiped the pair of deities like Demeter, Goddess of Grain & Fertility, and her daughter, Persephone.

Ancient Egyptian Culture Writing in few words about Ancient Egyptian Culture which was one of the great civilization is really impossible task so i Will try to write few things that were known as integral part of Ancient Egyptian Culture. Ancient Egyptian civilization is considered as one of the Oldest civilization in the history of mankind. Ancient Egyptian culture s known for their pyramids which are Still considered as the wonders in 21st century. Scientist and Architects ofthe modern world are not able to answer the simple question: » How did they build it? The treasure discovered from the pyramids and other monuments put more light on the ancient Egyptian culture. The greatness of this civilization is that it has three thousand years of continuous history. As the result civilization is that it has three thousand years of continuous history. As the result of the political unificatlon of the major Nile Valley civilizations, the Ancient Egyptian civilization began around 1 50BC. After passing through many golden ages and powerful kingdoms of Pharaohs, the era of Ancient Egyptian civilization was ended with the death of legendary queen Cleopatra.

Few points about this great culture are: • Clothing: Ancient Egyptian people usually wore white linen tunics, drapes and loin clothes. The clothing Style was different for different classes of society. Pharaohs and priests used high quality material. The people from high society used to possess gold jewelery to maintain their status. • Farming: The life of the ancient Egypt was dependent on Nile river. Nile was as equal to the life for them. The farmers of that age are known for the invention of the first irrigation system. Some scientists also believe that Egyptian farmers were the first farmers to use a plough. ?? Language: Ancient Egyptian language was at one point the longest surviving and used language. It was used from 30003C to 1 Ith century. heir writing system was made up ofpictures ofthe real things like birds, tools, etc. These pictures are known as hieroglyph. This language was made up of more than 500 hieroglyphs and is known as hieroglyphics. On the stone monuments or tombs many forms of artistic hieroglyphics can be ound. • Legal System: Pharaohs were the rulers of ancient Egypt. The laws were made and maintained by the Pharaohs.

The laws of the ancient time were based on common-sense vi made and maintained by the Pharaohs. The laws of the ancient time were based on common-sense View of right and wrong. The punishments were decided considering the severity of the crime. Tomb robbery was considered as serious crme and tomb robbers were punished by execution. Sometimes criminals’ families were also punished. The Mayan CiVilization: The Mayan culture extended from the third to the ninth century. The Maya civilization is credited with the building of truly awe- inspiring temples, pyramids and cities.

They are known to have developed and thrived within a complex social and political order. Many of the remnants reveal that the Mayan culture excelled in many different fields, and the modern World is Still unearthing testaments of their achievements. Today descendents of the ancient Maya account for more than 50% of the population of Guatemala. Their culture is Still vibrant and thriving. Traditionally dressed women and children in the entire country are a great how of their association with and pride in the ancient Mayan civilization.

Special features of the ancient Mayan civillzation: The Mayan civilization is synonymous with the art of weaving. The art has survived uninterrupted for centuries and is now gaining recognition all over the world. The Maya are also known for unique baskets, pottery and wood carvings of animals, figurines and toys. The Chichicastenango traditional handicrafts market every Thursday and Sunday is a typical Mayan market and a celebration of the civilization. The Hemispheric Indigenous Education Conference brought together various aspects